Can dogs be fed vegan? That’s what studies say about plant-based nutrition for four-legged friends

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Vegan diet for dogs, is it possible?

The dog descended from the wolf. Like this one, it mainly eats meat, but not only. But could it also be completely plant-based, i.e. vegan? Studies may provide initial clues.

Factory farming and the climate crisis have spoiled many people’s appetite for meat. According to figures from the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture, 14 percent of people in Germany were vegetarian or vegan last year. But when it comes to their pets, owners can quickly be faced with a dilemma: How can you justify bringing in pounds of dog and cat meat that you yourself reject for ethical or other reasons?

Dogs once had to be content with leftovers. Today there are foods specially adapted to the needs of the more than ten million dogs in Germany, some of whose ingredients resemble those of a human dish and which also take into account different nutritional philosophies: There are foods made from organic ingredients, from insect puree, among other things, gluten-free, vegetarian and vegan food.

Vegan nutrition for dogs in particular is received with great reservations by experts and dog lovers. “Many still see the wolf in the dog, but they don’t know that the wolf didn’t just eat meat,” says Volker Wilke of the Institute for Animal Nutrition at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover. Therefore, the dog is also not a pure carnivore. “During the thousands of years of domestication, it ate like an omnivore and sometimes a lot less meat than it does today,” Wilke emphasizes. But is plant-based food enough for a healthy dog ​​diet?

A study recently published in the journal “Plos One” may provide initial indications. British and Australian researchers asked more than 2,500 owners about their dogs’ health and compared how often they had to go to the vet, for example, or if they received medication. 54 percent fed their dogs conventional food, 33 percent relied on raw meat, and 13 percent fed their dogs vegan food.

The result: Dogs fed classic food appeared to be the least healthy, the scientists report. Dogs that ate raw meat were said to be slightly healthier than vegans. The differences between these two groups could also be explained by the fact that the dogs that ate raw meat were on average younger than the vegans and that their owners took them to the vet less frequently. Previous studies have also shown that the risk of malnutrition and pathogen ingestion is higher with a diet containing raw meat. Collectively, the experts conclude that a balanced vegan diet is the healthiest and safest for dogs. The study was funded by the organization ProVeg International, which claims to be committed to animal-free feeding.

“Transferring your own attitude to the dog”

Ellen Kienzle, Professor of Animal Nutrition at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, considers that the validity of the study is limited: “It was a subjective perception”. As long as a dog doesn’t show clear signs of illness, owners can’t even tell if he’s sick, she says. Feeding vegan dogs: Kienzle doesn’t believe in that at all. “No one knows how nutrient availability changes with the vegan diet, and we know it changes.” So far, there have only been a few studies on it. However, for accurate claims, studies on each individual nutrient would be required. But even if you take blood from a dog for research, that’s considered an animal experiment that requires approval. “You have to demonstrate the indispensability of the project,” emphasizes Kienzle. And it is not essential.

From his point of view, as long as people eat meat, there are enough leftovers such as organs and bones that are only used in animal feed. “So the vegan diet is a matter of pure sensitivity, a transfer of one’s attitude to the dog, and that’s not fair,” he says. According to previous studies, people who don’t eat meat come up with the idea of ​​feeding their dog a vegan or vegetarian diet.

At the Volker Wilke Institute, researchers have been working on meat-free nutrition for dogs for some time. “Previous studies indicate that the dog can also receive all the necessary nutrients through a plant-based diet with certain additives,” he says. However, a vegan diet is also more difficult to produce and requires a lot of specialized knowledge to meet the needs.

Test: Not all dogs eat vegan food

But do dogs that have been fed conventional food try vegan food? Volker Wilke wanted to test this in a blind study involving 24 students and their dogs. Some fed the dogs vegan dry food from two manufacturers, while a control group continued to feed them food containing meat. For two weeks, owners in the study were asked to record whether their dog liked the food and what the composition of its feces was.

“Three dogs were among the vegan-fed animals that refused. As a result, uptake was not significant, but it did tend to be a bit lower,” says Wilke. “But the others ate it with pleasure.” However, the study was not representative due to the small number of participants.

According to Wilke, vegan dog nutrition remains a niche topic. But she points out that interest in him is increasing, also in science. But in order to be able to assess exactly how dogs acquire it, long-term studies are needed that examine several objective health parameters, such as certain blood values, effects on the condition of the coat or, if necessary, the fitness of the animals. .

By the way, the situation is completely different with cats: they are pure carnivores and cannot be fed vegan, warn both Wilke and his colleague from Munich Kienzle.

(This article was first published on Sunday, May 22, 2022.)

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